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The non-LTR retrotransposons of Entamoeba histolytica: genomic organization and biology
D. Kaur, M. Agrahari, , S. Bhattacharya
Published in Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Genome sequence analysis of Entamoeba species revealed various classes of transposable elements. While E. histolytica and E. dispar are rich in non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, E. invadens contains predominantly DNA transposons. Non-LTR retrotransposons of E. histolytica constitute three families of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), and their short, nonautonomous partners, SINEs. They occupy ~ 11% of the genome. The EhLINE1/EhSINE1 family is the most abundant and best studied. EhLINE1 is 4.8 kb, with two ORFs that encode functions needed for retrotransposition. ORF1 codes for the nucleic acid-binding protein, and ORF2 has domains for reverse transcriptase (RT) and endonuclease (EN). Most copies of EhLINEs lack complete ORFs. ORF1p is expressed constitutively, but ORF2p is not detected. Retrotransposition could be demonstrated upon ectopic over expression of ORF2p, showing that retrotransposition machinery is functional. The newly retrotransposed sequences showed a high degree of recombination. In transcriptomic analysis, RNA-Seq reads were mapped to individual EhLINE1 copies. Although full-length copies were transcribed, no full-length 4.8 kb transcripts were seen. Rather, sense transcripts mapped to ORF1, RT and EN domains. Intriguingly, there was strong antisense transcription almost exclusively from the RT domain. These unique features of EhLINE1 could serve to attenuate retrotransposition in E. histolytica. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetMolecular Genetics and Genomics
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH